Background: IJVER

At least 4 GW at approximately 80 km from the shore of IJmuiden

IJmuiden Ver (IJVER) is one of the designated wind farm areas under the Dutch offshore wind road map 2030. With a capacity of 4 GW and a distance to shore of approximately 80 km, it is currently the largest foreseen Dutch wind farm zone, and the furthest from shore. Due to its size and location, an energy-island concept offers interesting advantages as a way to connect IJVER to shore

The Dutch offshore wind road map 2030

In the offshore wind roadmap 2030, the Dutch government has set the goal to achieve an additional 4 megaton CO2 reduction by 2030 via offshore wind. This translates into a cumulative offshore wind capacity target of 11.5 gigawatt (GW) by 2030. Taking into account current installed capacity (~1GW) and the 3.5 GW anticipated to come online by 2023, an additional 7 GW of capacity is required. The additional capacity will be allocated on the based on the following principles:

  • Continued deployment of offshore wind at already appointed wind farm areas further out at sea
  • Coordination from the Dutch state with regard to spatial planning decisions and preliminary investigations
  • TenneT, the Dutch transmission system operator, is responsible for the connection of the wind farms to shore
  • Continued cost reduction efforts and stimulation of innovation and competition
  • Seize earning opportunities and increase employment opportunities
  • Embrace multifunctional use of the North Sea, as long as it further reduces the costs of offshore wind or limits the costs of the energy transition
  • Prepare for largescale international wind farms and interconnections at sea

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Map and Connections IJmuiden Ver

Overview of IJVER South ("Zuid"), Center ("Midden") and North ("Noord") - Source: Royal HaskoningDHV

Connecting offshore wind farms to shore

  • Two options: Alternate Current (AC) or Direct Current (DC)
  • AC is cheaper than DC, but DC has far less cable losses
  • Therefore DC makes economic sense if wind farms are further out from shore

IJVER wind farm zone

  • ~80 km from the shore of IJmuiden
  • First Dutch wind farm to be connected with a DC connection
  • At least 4 GW of offshore wind capacity
  • IJVER South: lot I and II (1 GW each) will be tendered in Q4 2023 and become operational in 2027/2028
  • IJVER Center: lot III and IV (1 GW each) will be tendered in Q4 2025 and become operational in 2029/2030
  • Further expansion of the wind farm zone likely in the IJVER North area post 2030

Energy Island

  • Minister Wiebes (Economic Affairs and Climate) has requested TenneT to investigate if it would be beneficial to place the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transformers on an energy island as an alternative to the more traditional solution on fixed offshore platforms (so-called jackets)
  • Conclusion: an island, solely used to facilitate the electrical infrastrucutre, is 10 - 15 % cheaper than a more traditional solution based on jackets. However, biggest concern is completion of the island within the timelines of the Dutch offshore wind roadmap 2030

OSF multifunctional island

  • Rather than aiming for an island for Lot I-IV, OSF proposes to connect Lot I and II via the traditional jacket route, to ensure the transmission infrastructure can be timely commissioned by 2027, while it develops a multifunctional island concept for the second 2 GW, lot III and IV, to be completed before 2029
  • This way an island will be ready well before 2029 and can be integrated into the timelines of the Dutch offshore wind roadmap 2030
  • By planning the island on the exact same location as the second HVDC station at IJVER "midden", TenneT can stick to its process for spatial planning of the second HVDC station and gains a free option to make use of the island
  • The island will stimulate the multifunctial use of the North Sea by adding activities which will further stimulate the energy transition such as hydrogen and interconnection with the UK
  • Due to economies of scale and the possibility to allocate costs to multiple end users, a multifunctional island will further improve economic benefits, for TenneT and ultimately the Dutch taxpayer